MADDER (Rubia cardifolia): Another madder in use c. 4000 BC in the Middle East. Powdered cardifolia is a lovely deep red-orange with alum. Light-fast and wash-fast if well-soaked before dyeing and steeped in the dyepot.
In earlier times, the dye was known by as many names as Rubia tinctoria, and also known as Alizarin but that name was usurped by lab-produced dyes. [India, Pakistan]
Alum mordant and cream of tartar: red-orange
Copper mordant: orange
Iron mordant: purple-red
Tin mordant: red