BUCKTHORN BARK (Rhamnus spp. ): Species known in Asia, Brazil, Canary Islands, North America, South Africa, Europe, China, Japan, Siberia. Bark has been used in the Middle East as a golden-brown dye source since 900 BC and a close relative was known to medieval dyers as Alder Buckthorn (R. fangula).
Good on wool and silk, fair on other fibers. Very light- and wash-fast. Relatives include Avignon Berry Tree (R. infectoria), the berries of which produces fugitive yellow and green dyes known as Persian berry.
AKA: Bearberry, carcara, redberry, sagrada. [Poland]
Alum mordant: golden-brown
Copper mordant: brown
Iron mordant: black on wool
Tin mordant: red-brown